12c New Privileges
Oracle 12c introduce new administratives privileges all destinated to accomplish specific duties:
SYSBACKUP : Used for RMAN operations like BACKUP, RESTORE, RECOVER
SYSDG : Used to administer DATAGUARD, In 12c when you use DGMGRL commandline interface your are automatically loggued on with the SYSDG privilege.
SYSKM : This privilege is meant for TDE operations like OPEN/CLOSE key stores, change master key or manage column encryption keys and tablespace encryption.
New OS groups
In addition with these new privileges comes new OS user groups :
The members of these groups are automatically granted the corresponding predifined oracle privileges mentionned before.
Like for the SYSDBA privilege and the dba group, you can’t use the OS authentication for these privileges if your are not member of the OS group.
By default in Oracle 12c, the passwordfile supports the new SYSDB, SYSBACKUP and SYSKM privileges, however you can choose to disable the authentication for one or more of these groups: